Please read all scheme related documents carefully before investing. A low PCR indicates that traders are buying more call options than put options, indicating that they are speculating a bull run in the market. Volume is used to denote the number of contracts that change hands in a day, whereas OI only calculates open positions in the market. Below is a table of trading activity in the options market for traders, John, Jessica, Mark, Mia, and Daisie. Generally, NIFTY Put call ratio follows a trend in which it seems to oscillate between 0.8 and 1.3 with 0.8 being the lower band and 1.3 being the upper band.

  • Here, we have elucidated the nitty-gritty of the same including the put call ratio formula and other facts.
  • It is usually beneficial to assess the Put-Call Ratio during major events like earnings calls to see how the market observes the future-outlook.
  • Therefore, a higher ratio implies hedging, and a lower ratio indicates speculation.
  • Resultantly, an average PCR of .7 for equity options is deemed to be suitable for assessing the market sentiment.
  • An average PCR of 0.7 for equity options is considered suitable for assessing the market.

For instance, a very high PCR signals an extreme bearish market sentiment. Also, it signifies that the market may bottom out and show some upward trend. On the other hand, if the PCR is at a very low level, it signals an extreme bullish market. Also, it signifies that the market is too bullish and can show some pullback signs. Since the PCR is less than one, it indicates that traders are buying more call options than put options which depicts a bullish trend in the future.

How to interpret the Put and Call Ratio to take a view on markets?

It is a sentiment indicator used by traders to gauge the overall market sentiment. One of the best ways to calculate PCR is by dividing the total number of open interest in a Put contract by the total number of open interest in Call option at the same strike price and expiry date on any given day. However, one can also calculate the same by dividing put trading volume by call trading volume on a particular day. One of the most trustworthy indicators of future market direction is a contrarian-sentiment measure known as the put/call options volume ratio. As often happens when the market gets too bullish or too bearish, conditions become best for a reversal. Let us assume that the PCR has gone up sharply in the last few days and the market index has also corrected by 15% during the last 1 month.

put call ratio chart

It is usually beneficial to assess the Put-Call Ratio during major events like earnings calls to see how the market observes the future-outlook. When the ratio touches extreme levels, it is usually indicative of the fact that the market is currently characterised by overly bullish or overly bearish sentiment. Options are derivative instruments, which means that their value is derived from some underlying asset, like stocks, bonds, or currencies to name a few. Typically, options are used for speculation or as risk-hedging tools by market participants.

The author is a Certified Financial Planner with 5 years experience in Investment Advisory and Financial Planning. Her strength lies in simplifying complex financial concepts with real life stories and analogies. Her goal is to make common retail investors financially smart and independent. To start trading in the Futures & Options market,open a FREE Demat accountwithSamco Securities– India’s best discount broker. In view of this, we advise you to exercise due caution and verify the authenticity of any investment tips offering incredible potential for making profit. Wealth creation is a long-term process that needs time and patience, and requires the investor to be vigilant all the time.

Market Details

Based on the extreme PCR levels, the trader takes a call to buy or sell against the prevailing market sentiments. It implies that if a trader considers a high Put Call Ratio, say 1.3, as a great opportunity for buying because they believe that the market trend is extremely bearish and will adjust soon. If traders are buying more puts, it indicates a bearish market sentiment. But if traders are buying more calls, it indicates a bullish market sentiment. Moreover, PCR can be used to calculate indices, stocks, or derivative segments as a whole.

put call ratio chart

The OI just indicates the amount of open positions that are there in the market. If we allot a plus or a positive (+) sign to a long position and minus or a negative (–) sign to a short position and add up the long and short positions, the sum will always be equal to zero. With increase in the amount of trading during a market session, the trading volume goes higher. The higher the volume, the more we can hope the existing trend to proceed further. Put-call ratio is one of such financial tools which prove useful for investors in more than one way.

Put Call Ratio

If one observes the Put-Call Ratio to be decreasing in value during a down-trending market, then it usually signifies a bearish outlook, characterised by option writers engaging in aggressive selling of the Call option strikes. Similarly, a PCR value above 1 indicates that more Put options are being purchased relative to the Call options which signals that investors are anticipating a bearish outlook for the markets ahead. An option is a contract that offers the option-buyer a right, but not an obligation to buy or sell the underlying asset. One can either buy or sell the asset at a predetermined price known as the strike price on a predetermined date which is known as the expiry date, after which the option will no longer be valid. A Put Call Ratio of less than 1 means that traders are trading call options more than put options. If the Put Call Ratio is above 1, then it suggests that there are more puts being bought in the market compared to calls.

put call ratio chart

PCR levels in a highly volatile market can be misleading as typically, during such times; traders tend to sell puts instead of buying calls. So, analyzing put call ratio based only on high or low PCR numbers could prove costly. Thus it is important to use Put Call ratio in sync with other trading activities.

OI is equal to the total number of bought or sold contracts, not the total of both added together. OI is the total number of outstanding derivative contracts that have not been settled. High open interest suggests that there are many contracts still open, which means market participants will be watching the market closely. Both call and put options can be either in the money or out of the money.

What is ‘Put-call ratio’

Times of greed and fear in the market are reflected by significantly high or low PCR. In an oversold market, puts will be high; as everyone expects the market to fall more. But for contrarian trader, it suggests that the market may soon bottom out. Conversely, in an overbought market, the number of calls traded will be high expecting the market to trend higher but for contrarians, it would suggest that market top is in the making.

Even here, the PCR movement trend is more critical than the absolute numbers. Traders can also calculate PCR based on the increment of open interest contracts to get a clear picture. The calculation of PCR for volumes and open interest is straightforward. Also, PCR is calculated with respect to a specific strike rate. Options Calculators Calculate theoretical value of an options premium or implied volatility etc.

Nifty Option Chain enables quick scanning of activity, open interest , and price changes. This enables traders to quickly find a security’s trading activity, volume, interest by strike price and time to maturity. Regardless, this derivative indicator has its share of drawbacks as well. Investors must find out about them in detail if they wish to combat the misgivings of market sentiments effectively. It is essentially a contrarian indicator; as a result, it helps traders to escape the herd mentality when it comes to investing in a given market. Since the outcome is less than 1, it indicates that investors are buying more call options when compared to put options.

Whereas put options are bought when there is a bearish market sentiment. By studying the Put Call Ratio, investors can anticipate the overall sentiment of the market. The put/call ratio is a popular indicator based upon the trading volumes of put options compared to call options.

It must be noted that the put options prove useful for hedging market weaknesses or helping traders to take chances on the market decline. On the other hand, call options are used extensively to hedge against the strong suit of the market or simply to bet on its advances. Traders start covering bearish Nifty betsThe shedding of bullish bets has been coupled with fresh selling of Nifty call options over the past two days.

Put Call Ratio Chart

The important take-away here is that options with higher-levels of implied volatility are usually priced at higher premiums and vice-versa. As with most sentiment indicators, the Put/Call Ratio is used as a contrarian indicator to gauge bullish and bearish extremes. Traders buy puts to insurance against a market decline or as a directional bet. While calls are not used so much for insurance purposes, they are bought as a directional bet on rising prices. Put volume increases when the expectations for a decline increase. Conversely, call volume increases when the expectations for an advance increase.

Now, this information can be highly important in helping you decide, which option you should invest in. This said ratio proves useful in analysing the overall trading behaviour of the market participants. Now suppose the Put open interest for the same expiry and strike price stands at 4,310,600 and Call open interest stands at 6,816,250. If the PCR increases with a decrease in IV, it indicates that put activity is increasing with a falling sense of risk. If the PCR increases with an increase in IV, it indicates that the put activity is increasing with a heightened sense of risk. It means option writers are aggressively selling the call option strikes.

By the time all stops are taken out the market participants turn bullish and want to remain on the long side of the market. Once everyone has bought then there is no one left to buy and the market starts to drift lower. is a part of ICICI Securities and offers what is chf currency retail trading and investment services. It is important for one to give due consideration to the demands of both, the Put options and the Call options in the market, which are given by the numerator and the denominator of the formula for the Put-Call Ratio, respectively.